Combining TMS with EEG results in numerous different artifacts which severely distort underlying TMS-evoked neural activity. Here, artifacts are defined as any part of the signal that is not primarily of interest (e.g. TMS-evoked neural activity and other ongoing neural activity). Artifacts can result from interactions between the EEG recording equipment and the large, time-varying magnetic field generated by TMS (TMS pulse artifacts, decay artifacts, electrode noise) or from unwanted physiological signals resulting from TMS (TMS-evoked muscle activity, eye blinks, eye movement, auditory-evoked potentials). Some of these artifacts can be avoided or minimised with appropriate experimental arrangement (e.g. auditory masking to minimise auditory evoked potentials) and careful EEG preparation (e.g. low electrode impedences and cable arrangement to minimise decay artifacts). However, other artifacts are unavoidable. The goal of TMS-EEG cleaning is to remove these artifacts while maintaining the integrity of the neural signal.